Glaucoma is a type of eye disease that affects the optic nerve, glaucoma symptoms vary depending on the type of glaucoma you have. The optic nerve is the major nerve of vision; it receives light generated nerve impulses from the retina and transmits it to the brain for them to be recognised as vision. It is associated with the build-up of eye pressure also known as the intraocular pressure, which leads to the damage of the optic nerve.
Intraocular pressure is not always associated with glaucoma since one can get the disease even during a normal eye pressure. This occurs due to poor regulation of the flow of blood to the optic nerve. The process of getting the disease begins with the loss of peripheral vision and if not treated at this stage it leads to blindness.
Glaucoma is categorised into two that is; open angle glaucoma and closed angle glaucoma the angle mainly means the area between the iris and cornea. This area is where the fluid flows in order for it to escape through the trabecular meshwork. Closed angle glaucoma appears immediately and it is painful, this leads to quick visual loss. Open angle glaucoma progresses slowly and it is not noticed immediately until the disease progresses.
Glaucoma symptoms are categorised according to the type, open-angle glaucoma involves the following symptoms; gradual loss of the visual field and a raised cup to disc ratio. The people who are at a high risk of getting this type of glaucoma are the elderly and those with a family history of the disease. Closed-angle glaucoma involves; nausea, red eye, vomiting, viewing halos around lights, mild dilated pupil, high intraocular pressure, sudden pain in the eyes and decreased vision, these symptoms are only mild.
Glaucoma symptoms may also present themselves at birth; this is known as congenital glaucoma or may develop during the first years of life which is known as infantile glaucoma. These symptoms include; watery eyes, cloudy eyes, enlarged eyeballs due to high pressure and closing the eyes for long. Glaucoma can be brought by various causes such as; diet, genetics, ethnicity and gender.