Glaucoma is an eye disorder that is characterized by build-up of intraocular eye pressure; it is mainly defined as an eye disease that damages the optic nerve. The optic nerve is the main visual nerve that is located at the back of the eye it is responsible for transmitting visual information to the brain that is, it receives light which are generated nerve impulses from the retina and transmits them to the brain. The brain then interprets the electrical signals and we recognize them via our eyes as vision. Glaucoma is not always associated with intraocular eye pressure since some cases have been reported to have been caused by poor blood flow to the optic nerve.
Glaucoma symptoms occur when there is increased fluid pressure that is the aqueous humour which nourishes the eye. If it increases elevated eye pressure results hence the eye becomes hard and if not treated blindness may result. After cataract it is the second leading cause of blindness.
Glaucoma is diagnosed via use of a tonometer which measures the intraocular pressure; the other methods used include various technologies: scanning laser polarimetry, optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy technologies that create baseline images and measure the optic nerve and the eyes internal structures.
Glaucoma treatment mainly depends on the extent of severity and it can be treated via glaucoma surgery, medications, lasers or eye drops which are used to lower the intraocular pressure and also to control glaucoma.
Glaucoma symptoms depend on the type of glaucoma an individual has that is there are two types of glaucoma; open angle and closed angle glaucoma. Open angle glaucoma is characterized with high intraocular pressure that leads to an individual developing tunnel vision which helps the patient to see objects that are straight ahead. It is not painful and no acute attacks occur, the signs involved are: visual field loss and changes of the optic nerve.
Closed angle Glaucoma symptoms appear suddenly and they are: eye pain that is severe, visual disturbance in low light environments, red eye, seeing halos around light, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting.