Macular degeneration is an eye disease that affects the macula and it is known to destroy the central vision system. It develops when part of the retina is dented causing progressive vision loss. This type of eye disease is known to be the leading cause of total blindness in Australia. It is classified into two major categories, and they are dry and wet Macular degeneration. This eye disorder occurs due to various factors such as aging, prolonged exposure to ultra violet rays, smoking, obesity, myopia, sleep apnea and certain medications such as drugs for osteoporosis.

Macular degeneration is categorised into two forms i.e. the dry and wet forms. The dry type is also known as the atrophic form, it occurs after the macula cells breakdown. During eye examination the condition is identified when yellow white spots known as dursens are seen around the retina. This condition is the most common and if it advances there will be changes in the nerves and sensory parts of the retina. The wet type is also referred to as exudative or neuro-vascular form.

Development of this condition leads to leaking of the blood vessels which scars the retina hence damaging the eyes central vision. This eye problem is more rapid than the dry type therefore vision loss may occur more rapidly.

Patients with Macular degeneration present themselves with the following symptoms. Blurred vision, objects appearing to be small, viewing straight lines as irregular lines, decreased central vision and blind spots. In order to avoid total blindness patients are advised to consult eye doctors for regular check-ups and if the above symptoms arise he or she should seek medical treatment. Macular degeneration can be treated via use of antioxidants that prevent unstable oxygen that damages the retina. Laser treatment reduces vision loss during the early stages of the condition. Photodynamic therapy; that involves the use of the drug verteporfin; the drug is administered intravenously to close the leaking blood vessels.

What causes blindness is an important topic to discuss as far as Australians are concerned. Many people in Australia tend to ignore various factors that may lead to complete loss of vision. Some of the leading causes of blindness include: diabetes, traumatic injuries, herpes simplex virus, and eye diseases such as glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, cataracts and macular degeneration. Blindness may affect one eye or both eyes and may not cause total darkness since some people who are blind can see shadows and some beams of light.

What causes blindness in most people begins with an eye disease that advances into complete vision loss. Cataract is a clouding of the eye lens that makes an individual’s vision to be blurred and it develops a problem of seeing through glare. It is known to be the leading cause of blindness all over the world if left untreated. Individuals who have the following symptoms (bury vision, glare, and double vision) are unable to see well at night as well as perceive faded colours; ideally, such people are advised to seek treatment. Glaucoma is an eye problem that deteriorates the optic nerve, this causes fluid build up and increased eye pressure. It leads to gradual loss of the peripheral vision. It is also a leading cause of blindness and immediate treatment after diagnoses is important.

What causes blindness in many adults is an eye condition known as macula degeneration. This eye disorder is mainly associated with aging and it damages the macula. Macula deterioration leads to loss of the central vision system and blurred vision arises. Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease that is caused by diabetes. It mainly affects blood vessels that nourish the retina and it causes leaking hence vision loss. Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye problem that begins during childhood and the infected person becomes blind at adulthood. Individuals with this eye disease have a problem of perceiving objects at night.

What is macula? The macula is located near the central portion of the human eye retina that is described as a yellowish oval shaped spot that is highly pigmented. The macula enables the eye to view detailed central vision that is sharp, to perceive colours and to carry out tasks like reading that is tasks that require central vision.

The macula consists of two ganglion cell layers and at the centre it comprises of the fovea. The fovea is a pit made up of cone cells and has no rods; the fovea’s function is to ensure that the eye provides a central vision of a high resolution. The fovea is also responsible for individuals colour perception ability. The macula is also made up of the peri-fovea and para-fovea.

What is macula and how is it adopted to its functions? The macula comprises of light sensitive photoreceptors that are densely packed together. This enables the macula to be in control of the central vision and the ability to do tasks like reading, distinguishing faces or details and driving. Having numerous cones in the macula enables the eye to have a sharp vision especially in bright light. It is yellow in colour since it is made up of lutein and zeaxanthin. Due to this it is able to absorb excess ultraviolet light and it also blocks entry of excess sun light.

What is macula and its clinical significance? If the macula is tampered with various eye diseases can develop. Macular degeneration can occur if the macula breaks down. This condition leads to the decreased ability of the eye to see clearly due to either partial or complete vision loss. Macula degeneration can also develop due to aging hence the elderly are at a higher risk. Destruction of the macula can also lead to formation of macula holes which are caused by trauma and if severe the entire macula can be damaged.

What is Amblyopia? Amblyopia is an eye disorder of the visual system also referred to as the lazy eye. Amblyopia is described as vision deficiency that leads to loss of the eyes’ ability to see details in objects. The affected eye will look physically normal but it does not function normally since the brain is coordinating with the other eye.

This condition develops when the nerve pathway to the brain of one eye does not fully develop during childhood. The affected or abnormal eye tends to send blurred or incorrect images to the brain. When this occurs the brain becomes confused hence it learns how to ignore images from the abnormal eye. The lazy eye may also develop when one eye has a better focus than the other that is one eye might have a lot of astigmatism or it may also be too near-sighted or farsighted.

What is Amblyopia most common cause? Strabismus is the common cause of the lazy eye. It is mainly an imbalance in the positioning of both eyes. It is characterized as an ocular misalignment that leads to one eye either turning inward that is esotropia or turning outwards that is exotropia. This deteriorates the eyes ability to focus on an image which may lead to development of double vision. Other causes of Amblyopia are certain conditions such as cataracts, blood or material at the back of the eye which block entry of light.

Its symptoms and forms of treatment include: Signs and symptoms presented by patients with this vision problem are such as poor vision in one eye, inability to perceive depth, eyes turning in or out and lastly both eyes working together. It can be treated by making the individual’s brain to use the weaker eye. This is achieved via correcting eye problems that cause Amblyopia such as removal of a cataract and then placing a patch on the normal eye and also use of atropine drops.

Eye exercises are part of vision therapies that are meant to improve vision skills such as eye focusing, moving and coordination. Exercising the eyes will enable them to be healthy in order for the visual system to work normally. Working out the eyes will improve the functionality of the eye muscles hence a good vision is obtained. These exercises are of different techniques and they have been proven to improve vision hence patients negating corrective lenses. If you wish to perform these techniques you can consult with an eye doctor or do some research in the internet.

Here are some of the best Eye exercises that you can opt to engage. Blinking is a simple technique that will help you keep your eyes fresh and able to focus on objects for long durations. By doing this exercise your eyes are able to discharge previous info and get ready to perceive new info. Moreover, you will be reducing eye strain and your eyes will be relaxed. Blinking is also a sign of good communication skills.

Individuals who blink after every three seconds are termed to be friendly unlike those who stare.

Zooming is a technique that requires you to follow the following steps. First sit in a comfortable position, stretch your arms and ensure that the thumb is in a hitchhike position. Focus on the thumb and bring it closer to your eyes. Focus until the thumb is about four inches away from your face. Move the thumb away until your arm is outstretched fully. Do this exercise for a few minutes each and every day. Palming is also a simple eye exercise that helps to relieve stress around the eye region and to relax them instead. This is done by leaning on a desk and resting your elbows on your knees then placing your hands over your eyes to cover them. This is useful during computer breaks.
In conclusion, Eye exercises will definitely make you feel relaxed.

Eye diseases may cause damage to the visual system and may lead to total blindness. There are several eye disorders that affect many Australians and they include the following: glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, amblyopia, conjunctivitis among others. In order to avoid losing your vision either partially or completely there are a few tips one can follow. Maintaining healthy eyes is important since our daily activities are dependent on our vision.

Eye doctors in Australia have time and again urged Australians to seek for eye check-ups in order to avoid any chances of eye blindness. This will help in the diagnoses of eye diseases earlier before they deteriorate the entire visual system. Eye check-ups will involve procedures such as pupil dilation and screening. Through screening conditions such as diabetes and glaucoma are diagnosed earlier hence early treatment is provided. This is important, since many eye disorders do not have warning signs and symptoms. Detection of such diseases will ensure there is early treatment hence prevention of vision loss.

Australians should find out their family eye health history in order to determine any history of eye diseases. This will enable eye doctors to determine whether or not you are at a high risk of developing an eye problem. Proper diets rich in vegetables and fruits are essential for strengthening your eye muscles. Ensure that you obtain enough sleep, this will avoid eye strain. Doing various eye exercises will ensure that your eye muscles are relaxed hence able to focus properly.
Individuals diagnosed with eye diseases should not use eye drops or ointments without consulting an eye doctor. Ocular hygiene is important for consistent eye health. Moreover, ocular hygiene requires a person to do the following: do not share items such as towels and use disposable wipes to clean the eyes-this will ensure that there is no spread of eye diseases due to contamination.

Conjunctivitis or pink eye is an eye disease that causes an inflammation on the eyes conjunctiva. It is a highly contagious infection that is common in children. It manifest itself through the following signs and symptoms: photophobia, crusts on the eyelids, blurred vision, excess tear production, eye redness and production a yellow-green discharge. It is classified into three forms depending on the main cause, the forms include: viral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis and allergic conjunctivitis.

Conjunctivitis Treatment is differs among the three types of conjunctivitis, since their sources of infection also differs. In order to avoid contamination between infected people; normal people are urged to avoid sharing items such as towels. Moreover, people are urged to wash their hands after touching their eyes. Conjunctivitis can also be treated at home by using over the counter lubricant eye drops to reduce discomfort. One may clean the discharge present on the eyelids via use of a soaked cotton wool. To avoid reinfection, patients using contact lenses should discard them if they had been contaminated.

Antibiotics such as eye drops and eye ointments are known to be the most effective form of Conjunctivitis Treatment. Viral conjunctivitis can be treated via use of artificial cold packs in order to get rid of the swelling. If the condition is severe for example conjunctivitis caused by herpes simplex virus doctors are known to prescribe antiviral medications. In bacterial conjunctivitis, topical antibiotics such as eye drops and eye ointments are used. Inflammation and eye dryness is relieved via use of artificial tears and cold compresses.

Allergic conjunctivitis develops when an individual comes into contact with an allergen or irritant. This condition can either be seasonal, perennial, giant papillary or contact dermato-conjunctivitis. Treatment is through use of allergy medications, including antihistamines and mast stabilizers like steroids and decongestants. These two forms of medication act by reducing the inflammation. But the best Conjunctivitis Treatment for allergies is to avoid the irritant.

Sydney medical care has grown significantly in the recent past. The city is defined by its recognizable technological developments. These developments have been witnessed in the medical sector. The Australian government has ensured that the city’s potential has been widely utilized.

Any Hospital in Sydney will offer you the best services. Such a hospital can be a general medical hospital or a specialized hospital such as the Sydney Eye hospital. The individual hospitals are recognized nationally as well as internationally. Most of the advancements that have been made in most of the Sydney hospitals have been possible due to the help of the Australian government.

Hospitals in Sydney are defined by the following attributes. Firstly, most hospitals in Sydney are strategically located. For instance, the location of Sydney Eye Hospital is convenient to all residence of Sydney. Thus, most people in Sydney will find it easier to consult eye specialists whenever their eyes present any difficulties. Secondly, hospitals in Sydney are well furnished with the necessary medical equipment. This is mainly attributed to the efforts of the public and the government; the public efforts are conveyed through contributions and donations while the government efforts are conveyed through the provision of modern facilities and highly qualified medical practitioners.

Thirdly, hospitals in Sydney are based on new developments. Such developments are made possible by the various findings that medical practitioners come up with every time they come across individual special cases. For instance, eye specialists at Sydney Eye hospital have emerged with new mechanisms on how to treat the various eye problems they encounter at the hospital. Lastly, each Hospital in Sydney has been contributing greatly towards the production of new medical practitioners in the various fields of medicine. For instance, Sydney Eye hospital has a running educational facility that is aimed at training eye specialists.

An ophthalmologist is an eye doctor who has specialized in the field of ophthalmology. Ophthalmologists are licensed medical or osteopathy doctors who upgrade their training in order to diagnose the various eye disorders that are known to affect the entire visual system. Some of the procedures they perform include: eye surgery, screening, treating eye diseases, eye examination and prescription of eye glasses and contact lenses.

The process of becoming an ophthalmologist is known to be lengthy, since it involves twelve years of training and can be longer if an individual pursues various subspecialties. The subspecialties involve specialization in specific eye care areas such as retinal diseases and paediatric ophthalmology. People interested in pursuing a course in ophthalmology are required to attain a four year training in college, a degree in medicine which involves a four year training in a medical school, one year for clinical training and a three year hospital based training in ophthalmology.

Trainees who complete their training are required to be board certified, that is to obtain a license that authorizes them to operate as ophthalmologists. Certification differs in various states hence it’s highly recommended that one should be well informed on the current details. An ophthalmologist job tasks involves managing both medical and psychological ophthalmic conditions. They also assess and examine the visual system of the patients in order to make a diagnosis.

They carry out surgical procedures like laser surgery and small incision surgery in order to treat eye diseases such as cataracts and glaucoma.
An ophthalmologist is also authorized to carry out tissue biopsy and use various therapeutic procedures like the laser therapy. He or she also gets to manage disorders like diabetes, genetic disorders or neurological disorders that affect the vision of a person. In addition, ophthalmologists work together as a team with other specialists, including ENT surgeons and neurologists in order to make informed decision on various medical conditions.

The increasing numbers of eye problems in Australia have led to the development of various eye care centres. Most of the eye care centres in Australia were developed and enlarged with the aim of reaching out to the general growing population. Foundations and individual donations from the Australian population have been the greatest contributing factors towards the development of eye care facilities. The best example of a well-established eye care centre is the Sydney Eye Hospital.

Sydney Eye Hospital as well as other eye care facilities across the country is integrated with a good number of activities. To begin with, the various eye care centres have created so many occupational opportunities for Australians. Individually, the Sydney Eye Hospital has a good number of facilities that cater for other events other than eye care/ eye health. The hospital itself has a wide number of employees, ranging from cleaners, cashiers, pharmacists, nurses, procurement personnel, and the eye doctor team (opticians, optometrists, and ophthalmologists), among other resources.

The manner in which eye hospitals in Sydney uphold themselves is very important, since the reputation of such hospitals is what leads to further developments in eye care. This is evident with the Sydney Eye Hospital. The hospital is fully equipped with the latest modern eye care facilities; most of these facilities are meant for the sophisticated eye treatments and surgeries. The hospital has a good number of rehabilitation facilities that are tailored towards the expansion of rehabilitation services for patients with deprived vision. In addition, the hospital has specialized educational facilities; these facilities are used to teach and develop reliable eye specialists.

In conclusion, eye care centres in Australia have a great effect on the Australian population. Through eye institutions such as the Sydney Eye Hospital, most people have been able to prevent adverse eye damages through early detection and treatment of eye problems/ diseases.