Macular degeneration is an eye condition that is age related and mainly affects adults and leads to loss of central vision this is due to the effect caused on the macula. Macula is the central part of the eyes retina that provides the eye with detailed central vision. The central vision is what individuals see directly in front of them and not at the side which is known as periphery vision. It is one of the leading causes of blindness or visual impairments in the elderly and makes reading and recognizing faces difficult. Other daily activities can be carried out easily since the peripheral vision is not affected.

There are two types of macular degeneration and they are: the dry form which results from the breakdown of the macula cells hence leading to the central vision being blurred. It does not cause blindness but deteriorates an individual’s central vision which is essential for reading or recognition purpose. This type is characterized by drusens which are multiple yellow white spots located at the back of the eye.

Wet form is the other type and it occurs when abnormal blood cells develop under the central part of the retina which leads to central vision distortion. This is due to the leaking of the blood vessels and the scaring of the retina, loss of vision is more rapid than in the dry form.
The main symptoms of this condition include: blurred vision that is decreased distance vision, blind spots due to loss of macular function, metamorphopsia whereby straight lines look bent and micropsia whereby objects appear smaller than in the other eye.

Macular degeneration can be treated according to the presented type, the dry form treatment is not yet found but antioxidants can be used to prevent damage of the retina. The wet form can be treated via the laser method which prevents vision loss during the early stages of the disease, the photodynamic therapy which involves use of both the drug verteporfin and laser method. Antioxidants can also be used to prevent damage of the retina by free radicals or unstable oxygen.

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