Macular degeneration is an age related medical condition that mainly affects the elderly and it results into vision loss at the macula due to damage of the retina. The retina is an interior layer in the eye that consists of nerves and receptors that function by collecting and transmit light signals from the human eye to the optic nerve, which are then taken to the brain for interpretation as sense of vision. The retina is made up of the macula which is its central portion that is responsible for coloured and detailed vision. The macula is where the photoreceptors that react to light stimuli and the neurons which interpret and transmit signals are located. This disease makes reading and recognition to be difficult even though the peripheral vision is not altered in order to allow other daily activities.

Macular degeneration is known as the central geographic atrophy it is classified into two that is, dry and wet macular degeneration. The dry form occurs as a result of atrophy at the pigment epithelial layer below the retina and due to it loosing photoreceptors at the central part of the eye it leads to vision loss. In this form cells in the macula breakdown which results to loss of the central vision.
The wet form is referred to as neovascular or exudative form that causes vision loss, which arises from abnormal blood vessel growth under the retinas centre, this leads to the leakage of blood and protein below the macula. The central vision is lost due to the blood vessels leaking, bleeding and they scar the retina. Vision loss begins in one eye and later affects the other hence vision loss is more rapid in this form unlike in the dry form.

Their various risk factors that predispose one to get the macular degeneration disease and they include: age, risks increase with age; race, it occurs mostly in whites; pigmentation, it occurs mostly in lightly pigmented people; iris colour; gender, women are likely to get the disease; smoking; obesity; medications such as Fosamax and family history of the disease. Symptoms include: blurred vision, alterations of the pigment, druse, atrophy, central scotomas and distorted vision.

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