The retina is defined as the curved black layer of the eye that is covered by light sensitive cells which are shaped like rods and cones. The rods function is to respond to dim light while the cones recognize various colours such as red, green and blue. When light enters the eye via the pupil it is focused by the cornea and the eye lens. The picture formed falls on the retina and the information is transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve. Retina problems will tend to affect the normal functionality of the eye.

The most common retina problems include the following: Retinal detachment, which is an eye condition that can lead to blindness of the affected eye. Individuals with a detached retina are those with a retina that is separated from the back of the eye. The group that is at a higher risk of obtaining this retina problem is the elderly group. Persons with this kind of problem should seek treatment immediately since the condition may worsen hence making the retina to detach completely. The eye will also be unable to send information through the optic nerve to the brain. Untreated detachment will result to total blindness.

Macular degeneration is also among the various retina problems, it is classified into two classes which are the wet and dry macular degeneration. The most common one is the dry type that results due to the thinning or aging of the macula’s tissue. The wet type occurs due to the development of abnormal blood vessels under the retina and fluid leaking which may lead to a blurred and distorted vision. This condition affects the eyes ability to see details clearly; this is due to the deterioration of the macula tissues.

The other retinal problems include diabetic retinopathy which damages the retina depending on the duration and severity of diabetes; ocular tumours, macular holes, central serous retinopathy and epiretinal membranes.

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