Cataracts are eye diseases that are characterized by a cloud that mainly develops at the eyes crystalline lens or at the lens capsule; the lens is the portion that lies behind the iris and pupil. Cataract causes decrease in vision, it can be mild, moderate or severe this depends on the extent of the cloud. It can occur due to aging which is common but can also occur rapidly; since its development and visual change is gradual most people do not recognize it. It can either affect one eye which develops rapidly unlike both eyes which is more common in most cataract patients.

Their various types of cataract and they are classified according to the anatomical location in the lens, its cause and the degree of clouding. Sub-scapular cataract is the type that develops at the back of the eye lens, people who are prone to developing it are: diabetic patients, those with farsightedness, retinitis pigmentosa and patients taking steroids at high doses. The other type is the cortical cataract which develops at the lens cortex; it is characterized as a white wedge like opacity. Senile cataract occurs mainly in the elderly, it is an opacity which swells of the lens and leads to loss of transparency completely.

Cataracts are caused by various factors such as: effects of diseases like diabetes, hypertension or trauma, intra-uterine development disorders, eye injury, genetic factors, aging, genetic disorders, exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. They have the following signs and symptoms: blurred vision, near-sightedness increases, loss of contrast sensitivity, vivid colour vision, double vision in one eye and increased glare like when looking at headlights. Some Cataracts like subscapular do not produce symptoms until they develop fully.

Cataracts are treated with two methods that is, either surgical or non-surgical treatments, surgical treatment mainly involve removal of the cataract, there are two types of surgery they are: extra- capsular cataract extraction and intra-capsular cataract extraction which are used to remove the cataract permanently. Non-surgical is via use of topical treatment that is use of eye drops which are used to reduce glare sensitivity and improve eye sight.

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