Cataract is an eye disease that is characterized as a clouding that develops on the crystalline lens or lens capsule of the human eye; it varies from being slight to being completely opacity hence obstructing light to pass. This occurs if there is protein build up in the eye lens, this makes the eye to be cloudy hence vision loss progresses. It develops slowly just like aging but can occur rapidly, hence most people do not realize they have the eye disease. It can affect either one eye or both eyes and if untreated blindness occurs.

Cataracts are caused by alteration of the eye proteins which are responsible for the maintenance of eye clarity. The disease can occur due to the following causes: secondary effects of diabetes, advanced age or hypertension, smoking, excessive exposure to ultraviolent light, exposure to ionizing radiation, intraocular inflammation, iodine deficiency, medications such as oral, inhaled or topical steroids, long term use of statins or phenothiazine’s, antipsychotic drugs like quetiapine and also due to physical or eye injury. Genetics may also be a cause of congenital cataracts and if a family has a history of the cataracts disease.

Their various types of cataracts and they include: age-related cataract which develops due to aging; cortical cataract is another type that is characterized as a white wedge like opacities that occurs at the lens cortex; congenital cataracts, that develops during childhood and it results due to an injury, infection or poor development before birth; subscapular cataract, which develops at the back of the eye lens and it occurs mainly in patients with diabetes, retinitis pigmentosa and those taking steroids; secondary cataracts develops due to conditions like diabetes, radiation or exposure to toxic substances; nuclear cataract, it occurs at the nucleus of the lens and it is mainly associated with aging; traumatic cataract which develops after an eye injury, it is of two types that is, blunt and penetrating trauma.

Cataracts symptoms include: cloudy vision, progressive near sightedness, double vision, changes in colour vision and prescription changes of glasses. Cataract disease can be treated through surgery that is its removal or non-surgical treatment which involves topical treatment.

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