Macular degeneration is an eye disease that affects the macula and it is known to destroy the central vision system. It develops when part of the retina is dented causing progressive vision loss. This type of eye disease is known to be the leading cause of total blindness in Australia. It is classified into two major categories, and they are dry and wet Macular degeneration. This eye disorder occurs due to various factors such as aging, prolonged exposure to ultra violet rays, smoking, obesity, myopia, sleep apnea and certain medications such as drugs for osteoporosis.

Macular degeneration is categorised into two forms i.e. the dry and wet forms. The dry type is also known as the atrophic form, it occurs after the macula cells breakdown. During eye examination the condition is identified when yellow white spots known as dursens are seen around the retina. This condition is the most common and if it advances there will be changes in the nerves and sensory parts of the retina. The wet type is also referred to as exudative or neuro-vascular form.

Development of this condition leads to leaking of the blood vessels which scars the retina hence damaging the eyes central vision. This eye problem is more rapid than the dry type therefore vision loss may occur more rapidly.

Patients with Macular degeneration present themselves with the following symptoms. Blurred vision, objects appearing to be small, viewing straight lines as irregular lines, decreased central vision and blind spots. In order to avoid total blindness patients are advised to consult eye doctors for regular check-ups and if the above symptoms arise he or she should seek medical treatment. Macular degeneration can be treated via use of antioxidants that prevent unstable oxygen that damages the retina. Laser treatment reduces vision loss during the early stages of the condition. Photodynamic therapy; that involves the use of the drug verteporfin; the drug is administered intravenously to close the leaking blood vessels.

What is macula? The macula is located near the central portion of the human eye retina that is described as a yellowish oval shaped spot that is highly pigmented. The macula enables the eye to view detailed central vision that is sharp, to perceive colours and to carry out tasks like reading that is tasks that require central vision.

The macula consists of two ganglion cell layers and at the centre it comprises of the fovea. The fovea is a pit made up of cone cells and has no rods; the fovea’s function is to ensure that the eye provides a central vision of a high resolution. The fovea is also responsible for individuals colour perception ability. The macula is also made up of the peri-fovea and para-fovea.

What is macula and how is it adopted to its functions? The macula comprises of light sensitive photoreceptors that are densely packed together. This enables the macula to be in control of the central vision and the ability to do tasks like reading, distinguishing faces or details and driving. Having numerous cones in the macula enables the eye to have a sharp vision especially in bright light. It is yellow in colour since it is made up of lutein and zeaxanthin. Due to this it is able to absorb excess ultraviolet light and it also blocks entry of excess sun light.

What is macula and its clinical significance? If the macula is tampered with various eye diseases can develop. Macular degeneration can occur if the macula breaks down. This condition leads to the decreased ability of the eye to see clearly due to either partial or complete vision loss. Macula degeneration can also develop due to aging hence the elderly are at a higher risk. Destruction of the macula can also lead to formation of macula holes which are caused by trauma and if severe the entire macula can be damaged.

Eye exercises are part of vision therapies that are meant to improve vision skills such as eye focusing, moving and coordination. Exercising the eyes will enable them to be healthy in order for the visual system to work normally. Working out the eyes will improve the functionality of the eye muscles hence a good vision is obtained. These exercises are of different techniques and they have been proven to improve vision hence patients negating corrective lenses. If you wish to perform these techniques you can consult with an eye doctor or do some research in the internet.

Here are some of the best Eye exercises that you can opt to engage. Blinking is a simple technique that will help you keep your eyes fresh and able to focus on objects for long durations. By doing this exercise your eyes are able to discharge previous info and get ready to perceive new info. Moreover, you will be reducing eye strain and your eyes will be relaxed. Blinking is also a sign of good communication skills.

Individuals who blink after every three seconds are termed to be friendly unlike those who stare.

Zooming is a technique that requires you to follow the following steps. First sit in a comfortable position, stretch your arms and ensure that the thumb is in a hitchhike position. Focus on the thumb and bring it closer to your eyes. Focus until the thumb is about four inches away from your face. Move the thumb away until your arm is outstretched fully. Do this exercise for a few minutes each and every day. Palming is also a simple eye exercise that helps to relieve stress around the eye region and to relax them instead. This is done by leaning on a desk and resting your elbows on your knees then placing your hands over your eyes to cover them. This is useful during computer breaks.
In conclusion, Eye exercises will definitely make you feel relaxed.