Cataract is an eye disease that is characterized as a clouding that develops on the crystalline lens or lens capsule of the human eye; it varies from being slight to being completely opacity hence obstructing light to pass. This occurs if there is protein build up in the eye lens, this makes the eye to be cloudy hence vision loss progresses. It develops slowly just like aging but can occur rapidly, hence most people do not realize they have the eye disease. It can affect either one eye or both eyes and if untreated blindness occurs.

Cataracts are caused by alteration of the eye proteins which are responsible for the maintenance of eye clarity. The disease can occur due to the following causes: secondary effects of diabetes, advanced age or hypertension, smoking, excessive exposure to ultraviolent light, exposure to ionizing radiation, intraocular inflammation, iodine deficiency, medications such as oral, inhaled or topical steroids, long term use of statins or phenothiazine’s, antipsychotic drugs like quetiapine and also due to physical or eye injury. Genetics may also be a cause of congenital cataracts and if a family has a history of the cataracts disease.

Their various types of cataracts and they include: age-related cataract which develops due to aging; cortical cataract is another type that is characterized as a white wedge like opacities that occurs at the lens cortex; congenital cataracts, that develops during childhood and it results due to an injury, infection or poor development before birth; subscapular cataract, which develops at the back of the eye lens and it occurs mainly in patients with diabetes, retinitis pigmentosa and those taking steroids; secondary cataracts develops due to conditions like diabetes, radiation or exposure to toxic substances; nuclear cataract, it occurs at the nucleus of the lens and it is mainly associated with aging; traumatic cataract which develops after an eye injury, it is of two types that is, blunt and penetrating trauma.

Cataracts symptoms include: cloudy vision, progressive near sightedness, double vision, changes in colour vision and prescription changes of glasses. Cataract disease can be treated through surgery that is its removal or non-surgical treatment which involves topical treatment.

Macular degeneration is an age related medical condition that mainly affects the elderly and it results into vision loss at the macula due to damage of the retina. The retina is an interior layer in the eye that consists of nerves and receptors that function by collecting and transmit light signals from the human eye to the optic nerve, which are then taken to the brain for interpretation as sense of vision. The retina is made up of the macula which is its central portion that is responsible for coloured and detailed vision. The macula is where the photoreceptors that react to light stimuli and the neurons which interpret and transmit signals are located. This disease makes reading and recognition to be difficult even though the peripheral vision is not altered in order to allow other daily activities.

Macular degeneration is known as the central geographic atrophy it is classified into two that is, dry and wet macular degeneration. The dry form occurs as a result of atrophy at the pigment epithelial layer below the retina and due to it loosing photoreceptors at the central part of the eye it leads to vision loss. In this form cells in the macula breakdown which results to loss of the central vision.
The wet form is referred to as neovascular or exudative form that causes vision loss, which arises from abnormal blood vessel growth under the retinas centre, this leads to the leakage of blood and protein below the macula. The central vision is lost due to the blood vessels leaking, bleeding and they scar the retina. Vision loss begins in one eye and later affects the other hence vision loss is more rapid in this form unlike in the dry form.

Their various risk factors that predispose one to get the macular degeneration disease and they include: age, risks increase with age; race, it occurs mostly in whites; pigmentation, it occurs mostly in lightly pigmented people; iris colour; gender, women are likely to get the disease; smoking; obesity; medications such as Fosamax and family history of the disease. Symptoms include: blurred vision, alterations of the pigment, druse, atrophy, central scotomas and distorted vision.

Their various diseases of the eye that lead to vision loss and they include: cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, dry eye, retinal detachment, eye herpes, conjunctivitis, cytomegalovirus retinitis, diabetic retinopathy and strabismus.

Cataract is a characterized as clouding at the eye lens, it leads to vision loss and seeing of objects becomes blurred. It develops mainly in the elderly but can also develop during birth, its main causes are: aging, diabetes, lens injury, low calcium levels, smoking, dehydration and prolonged use of cortisone. It is presented by the following symptoms: double vision, diminished vision, decreased colour sensitivity, prescription changes of eye glasses and ability to read in dim light or even without glasses. Its treatment is through surgery that is removal.

Glaucoma is also in the class of diseases of the eye and it mainly affects the optic nerve which prevents the fluid in the eye from draining properly causing increased eye pressure. They are two types that is, open angle and closed angle glaucoma. Symptoms involved are: eye pain, blurred vision, nausea and changes in eyeglass strength. Their treatment is through surgery.

Strabismus is an eye disease that may lead to blindness if left untreated; it is whereby one eye does the seeing while the looks at a different direction. Primary strabismus is inherited while secondary strabismus occurs due to; head injury, diabetes, heart failure, head injury, hypertension, and stroke and brain tumour. The treatment involves various procedures that involve the following steps; first glasses are prescribed, then the suppression habit is broken down via vision therapy and lastly stereopsis is developed to prevent the eyes from re-crossing.

Dry eye is also a type of eye disease that arises when tear production decreases, this result to dry burning eyes. Symptoms presented by this are; Sjorgen’s syndrome which consists of rheumatoid arthritis and dry mouth. People prone to the disease are the aging people. It can be treated by using isotonic artificial tears.

Uveitis is also in the diseases of the eye class, it is described as an inflammation of a part or the whole uvea. The symptoms presented are; blurred vision, eye redness and severe eye pain. Its causes include: arthritis, tuberculosis, ocular contusion injury and lens induced uveitis. Treatment is via surgery or laser and it is managed by using atropine and anti-inflammatory drugs.

An eye disease is an ailment that invades or alters the anatomy of the eye; it alters with its function of seeing. Their most common eye diseases are: macular degeneration, thyroid eye disease, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Macular degeneration is an age related disease that results from sharp and central vision damage. It is classifies into two forms that is the wet and dry forms, the wet form occurs when their abnormal blood vessel growth under the macula. This leads to bleeding, leaking and scarring which results into loss of the central vision. The dry form occurs during the aging process when the macula thins overtime, but is slow in progression unlike the wet form.

Thyroid eye disease occurs in patients with Hashimoto’s disease, it is an autoimmune disease that is also associated with Graves’s disease. It is presented with signs like; eye pain, itching, impaired vision, inflammation and double vision. Treatment is via use of eye drops and eye ointments. Cataract is also an eye disease that is characterized as cloud in the eye lens which may lead to blindness. Treatment of cataract is its removal through surgery.

Glaucoma is a disease that alters with the optic nerve which leads to vision loss and may lead to blindness. It is into classes that is, open angle and closed angle glaucoma. Alteration of the optic nerve results to accumulation of fluid that increases eye pressure. Glaucoma is referred to as a slow thief of sight since it progresses slowly and the end result is blindness. Strabismus is an eye disease that makes the eye to either cross in or turn out; it is associated with the imbalance of eye positioning. It can lead to total vision loss if the two eyes do not focus on the same image.

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease associated with diabetes, it occurs due to the blood vessels of the retina. It affects both eyes and can lead to blindness, to low the risk of getting this disease patients have to manage diabetes via good control of their blood sugar, lipid abnormalities and blood pressure.

Their various eye conditions and the major ones are: cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye conditions and macular degeneration. The other conditions include; amblyopia, strabismus and colour blindness. Cataract is a clouding that forms at the eye lens and interferes with the central vision; its treatment is via removal by getting a surgery. Aging people are prone to the condition and this causes them to have blurred vision, get sensitive to light and colour blindness which may lead to blindness.

Diabetic eye condition is also in the class of eye conditions, diabetes as a condition affects the eye and can lead to blindness. Diabetes affects the retina that results to a condition known as diabetic retinopathy which is of three stages depending on how severe the condition is. The three stages are: background diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Macular degeneration is among the age related eye conditions that alter with the central vision and it is a common cause of blindness. It is in two forms that are wet and dry forms; they involve the growth of abnormal blood vessels behind the retina which leads to leakage hence, damage of the macula. Common symptoms presented with this condition are: blurred vision, colour impairment and dark patches in the vision. The risk factors that may lead to this condition are: aging, smoking cigarettes, genetics, sunlight and high blood pressure.

Glaucoma is an eye condition that is classified into two that is, open angle and closed angle glaucoma. This condition alters with the optic nerve which leads to increased eye pressure and loss of vision or blindness arises. Open angle glaucoma blocks the drainage channels of the eye hence increased eye pressure results which lead to eye pain and loss of vision. Closed angle glaucoma blocks the flow of the fluid to the eye, which leads to blindness but can be treated via glaucoma surgery.

Other eye conditions are: amblyopia which is also named as the “lazy eye”, it occurs when the anatomy of the eye does not develop fully during early childhood. It leads to the brain and eye not working together and a drooping eyelid results which causes blurred vision. If not treated at this stage blindness may occur.

Vision problems are of many types and they are presented with the following symptoms: blurred vision, floaters, halos and blind spots (scotomas). If such changes occur to your eyes it is recommended that a person should see an eye doctor for examination. Eye check-ups are of importance since; they help to prevent loss of vision or severe eye complications.

Vision problems are caused by the various conditions which include: cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, presbyopia, night blindness, brain tumours, stroke, migraines, floaters, diabetic retinopathy, arteritis and retinal detachment. Various medications can also lead to vision problems and they are: medications of malaria, ethambutol for tuberculosis treatment, antihistamines, anticholinergic, indomethacin, phenothiazine’s and blood pressure pills like thiazide diuretics.

The common vision problems are: near sightedness also referred to as myopia. It is characterized as a problem whereby images are focused in front of the retina rather than on it hence, objects at a distant appear blurred. It mainly occurs during childhood and it is inherited from the family. Farsightedness is a vision problem also known as hyperopia. It is whereby the eye focuses an image slightly behind the retina hence, objects near it appear blurred. It outgrows as a person matures.

Astigmatism is said to occur when the central cornea is not uniform, when it combines with myopia and hyperopia it occurs when the clear cornea has a non-round curvature. Due to this the eye will lack a single point of focus leading to uneven vision pattern and the patients sees certain objects clearly and others appear blurred.
Presbyopia occurs when the eye develops less focusing power for viewing things at a distance; it leads to blurred vision even at a normal reading distance. It starts when turns the age 40 and that’s why people above this age are dependent on glasses in order to read and view things clearly even at a distant.

Retinal detachment occurs when small holes develop in area where the retina is thin, this leads to seeping of the clear liquid vitreous behind the retina and the retina comes off. If not treated immediately blindness occurs. Factors that lead to this are: extreme near sightedness, previous eye surgery, inherited thinness of the retinas tissues and previous retinal detachment.

The eyes are always vulnerable; they can experience eye problems at any instant in time.

Ideally, eye complications can affect a person at any age (in childhood, teenage or adulthood). Most of the time the eyes are exposed to objects or environments full of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In such scenarios, the eye can possibly get infected by bacteria, fungi or viruses. In most extreme cases, the eyes can get infected/ or damaged from external objects, such as glass pieces in a road accidents. In other occasions, one may experience problems in the eyes through inheritance of some attributes from the parents.
So, eye problems are conditions that need to be conserved seriously.

In that regard, one is always advised to seek medical assistance whenever he or she experiences any unusual sensation from the eyes. Large medical institutions like the Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital do encourage people to consult ophthalmologist whenever they experience the following: diminishing of some parts of the visual perimeter; sensation of specks and light flashes; decreased viewing capacity; persistent pain in the eyes; unusual headache nausea; partial blindness; double vision; poor colour sensitivity; red and irritating eyes; itchy sensation in the eyes; puffy eyes; burning eyes; unusual eye discharge; and so on.

When eye problems are not taken care off soon enough, they result into the various eye diseases. For instance, clouding of an eye lens, also known as cataract is a condition that is experienced by people who are 60 years and above. If the condition is not attended to in time it will lead to vision loss. Glaucoma is another eye disease that poses some potential threats to one’s eye sight. This particular disease exhibits most of the mentioned symptoms above. It exists in three major forms (open angle glaucoma; angle closure glaucoma; and secondary glaucoma).

Most of the eye symptoms do correspond to some very potential eye problems, here are some of them: blurred vision corresponds to hyperopia, presbyopia, and diabetic retinopathy; eye bump corresponds to pinguecula, and papilloma; eye burning corresponds to trauma, computer vision syndrome, conjunctivitis, contact lens problems, dry eye syndrome and so on.

Statistics show that a big number of people experience eye disorders breakouts in Australia. Well, most of the recorded cases are attributed to external factors. The commonest factors that result into undesirable eye conditions include: genetic eye illnesses; bacterial and fungi infections. The three factors are all very unique. However, bacterial and fungi eye infections are obtained physically via exposure to items or objects composed of such causes. Other primary causes of eye illnesses include: critical smoking; diminished levels of calcium in the body; high levels of dehydration; glass blowers; congenital; lens injuries; adverse effects of diabetes; aging; and so on.

Primarily, the two commonest eye disorders consist of: short sightedness and long sightedness. These two are treated by corrective lenses. Apart from the two, there exist a large number of minor and serious eye diseases which affect the various structures of the eye (cornea, pupil, macular, eyelids, retina, iris, and so on). The most recorded eye conditions constitute the following: cataracts; glaucoma; retinal detachment; strabismus; dry eye; diabetic retinopathy; uveitis; sty; amblyopia; ptosis; conjunctivitis/ pink eye, common in children; orbital cellulitis; astigmatism; corneal disease; and optic neuritis. All the mentioned eye illnesses manifest themselves in different degrees.

You can establish whether you are experiencing eye problems or not by looking out for the following eye disorders symptoms: the iris changing colour; unusual discharge from the eye; persistent double visions; light flashes; black spots; eye straining accompanied by eye pain; distorted vision; exterior vision shortage; swollen eyelids; itchy red eyes; slow adjustment to darker environments; continuous change of eyeglasses lenses; diminished colour sensitivity; occasional trauma; flashes and floaters; puffy eyes; blurred vision; prolonged effects of diabetes; foreign objects in the eye; headache nausea; partial blindness; ocular contusion injury; arthritis; adverse effects of TB and so on.

The various eye disorders are treated separately. Some of them do require sophisticated treatments which consist of surgeries. Cataracts are treated through surgery; the surgery involves the amputation of the opaque lens which is replaced with artificial lens implant. On the other hand, retinal detachment is also treated by a surgical operation. Other eye illnesses are treated through surgeries, medical prescriptions or both.

The recent trends on eye health have proven that so many individuals fall victims of eye diseases each day across the globe. In essence, eye disorders have significantly resulted into numerous conditions of eye sight loss. In Australia, about half of the people are worried about the state of their eye sight. Most of the conditions that make such people worry include: near sight and long sight. In most occasions, the two conditions are treated by employing the use of corrective lenses.

At least a third of Australian population does not undergo regular eye health check-ups in an attempt of establishing the presence of any eye diseases. Medical institutions, such as Sydney Eye Hospital Foundation are actively educating and enlightening the Australian communities on the importance of knowing all the signs of eye illnesses and their potential causes as well as the effects they impose on one’s sight if not detected early enough.

You are now ready to enlighten yourself on the various eye diseases which have proven to be very fatal if proper eye care is not considered seriously. Here are the commonest eye sicknesses which have so far been put on record. Cataracts: this disease is defined by a cloudy appearance of the eye lens; the disease is normally pain free. The cloudy effect results into impaired vision. The normal causes of cataracts consist of: aging, trauma, and so on.

The second commonest eye disease is Glaucoma. Glaucoma is a general name given to a specialized group of eye diseases which have adverse effects on the optic nerve and they consequently result into blindness. Glaucoma effect on the eye is based on the elevated intra-ocular pressure, abbreviated as IOP. Glaucoma disease can manifest itself in two major categories, which are: open angle Glaucoma and angle closure Glaucoma. Among the two phases of Glaucoma, the open angle Glaucoma is known to be commonest one.

In addition, age related macular degeneration has also proven to be among one of the commonest eye illnesses. The disease is normally prevalent as from 60 years and above. The disease does not result into blindness, but it damages: the macular; the central retina; and decreases vision. Other potential eye illnesses include: retinal detachment; pink eye; and so on.

You can easily contract an eye infection from everyday activities. The commonest thing about eye infections is that they can breakout on different structures of the eyes. In most cases, the infections may breakout on one eye and spread to the next through an external means, such as touch by hand or breakout on both eyes simultaneously.

The major signs of an eye infection consist of the following: decreased eye sight due to adverse effects of an infection; high fever; white soreness on the iris, especially when the infection has taken much effect on the eye; persistent reddening of the eye as well as the eyelids; unusual discharge from the eye, the discharge maybe watery, green, bloody, yellow and so on; eyes growing sensitive to light, either extreme or moderate; the sensation of having something in the eye; persistent pain in the eye; itching effect on the eye; swelling of the eye; and so on.

Medically, there exist various eye infections, such infections do include the following: style (a condition that is presented by a bump on the eyelid, the bump develops as a result of bacterial infection on the root of eyelash hair follicle); conjunctivitis, this is a condition that is primarily referred to as pinkeye and it is common in children; ocular herpes, is an infection that occurs when one is exposed to Herpes simplex virus; fungal keratitis, this infection accrues due to Fusarium fungi, a fungi mainly exist in organic matter; Trachoma, this is an infection of the eye that is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, the condition is common in most of the third world countries; and so on.

There exist many ways through which one can evade any possibilities of contracting an eye infection. Such ways include the following: avoiding contact with a person that suffers from a red eye or any other eye infection; washing hands regularly after visiting the toilet or after doing any chores; cleaning contact lenses regularly in order to get rid of any bacteria and fungi; paying frequent visit to eye specialists in order to determine the current status of the eyes; and so on.